List the seven major classes of air pollutants, including ozone and hazardous air pollutants, and describe their effects.
Describe the adverse health effects of specific air pollutants and explain why children are particularly susceptible to air pollution.
Summarize how electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers work.
Define stratospheric ozone thinning and describe some of the harmful effects of ozone depletion.
Explain how chlorofluorocarbons and other chemicals attack stratospheric ozone.
Explain how acid deposition develops and describe some of the effects of acid deposition.
Define forest decline and explain its possible causes.
Explain why air pollution is generally worse in developing countries than in highly developed countries.
Describe the global distillation effect and tell where it commonly occurs.
Explain why tobacco smoke is considered a major indoor air pollutant.
Define water pollution.
List and briefly describe eight categories of water pollutants.
Discuss how sewage is related to eutrophication, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and dissolved oxygen.
Define dead zone.
Contrast point source pollution and nonpoint source pollution.
Describe how most drinking water is purified and discuss the chlorine dilemma.
Distinguish among primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments for wastewater.
Define primary and secondary sludge.
Distinguish between narrow-spectrum and broad-spectrum pesticides, and describe the various types of pesticides, such as insecticides and herbicides.
Describe the benefits of pesticides in disease control and crop protection.
Explain why monocultures are more susceptible to pest problems.
Summarize the problems associated with pesticide use, including development of genetic resistance; creation of imbalances in the ecosystem; persistence, bioaccumulation, and biological magnification; and mobility in the environment.
Describe the pesticide treadmill and explain how resistance management may help with this problem.
Discuss pesticide risks to human health, including short-term effects and long-term effects.
Explain endocrine disruption.
Describe alternative ways to control pests, including cultivation methods, biological controls, pheromones and hormones, reproductive controls, genetic controls, quarantine, integrated pest management, and food irradiation.
Define persistent organic pollutant and describe the purpose of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Distinguish between municipal solid waste and nonmunicipal solid waste.
Describe the features of modern sanitary landfills and explain some of the problems associated with them.
Describe the features of a mass burn incinerator and explain some of the problems associated with incinerators.
Summarize how source reduction, reuse, and recycling help reduce the volume of solid waste.
Define integrated waste management.
Define hazardous waste and briefly characterize representative hazardous wastes (dioxins, PCBs, and radioactive wastes).
Explain how green chemistry is related to source reduction.