Pollution

  • Describe the composition of the atmosphere.
  • List the seven major classes of air pollutants, including ozone and hazardous air pollutants, and describe their effects.
  • Describe the adverse health effects of specific air pollutants and explain why children are particularly susceptible to air pollution.
  • Summarize how electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers work.
  • Define stratospheric ozone thinning and describe some of the harmful effects of ozone depletion.
  • Explain how chlorofluorocarbons and other chemicals attack stratospheric ozone.
  • Explain how acid deposition develops and describe some of the effects of acid deposition.
  • Define forest decline and explain its possible causes.
  • Explain why air pollution is generally worse in developing countries than in highly developed countries.
  • Describe the global distillation effect and tell where it commonly occurs.
  • Explain why tobacco smoke is considered a major indoor air pollutant.
  • Define water pollution.
  • List and briefly describe eight categories of water pollutants.
  • Discuss how sewage is related to eutrophication, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and dissolved oxygen.
  • Define dead zone.
  • Contrast point source pollution and nonpoint source pollution.
  • Describe how most drinking water is purified and discuss the chlorine dilemma.
  • Distinguish among primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments for wastewater.
  • Define primary and secondary sludge.
  • Distinguish between narrow-spectrum and broad-spectrum pesticides, and describe the various types of pesticides, such as insecticides and herbicides.
  • Describe the benefits of pesticides in disease control and crop protection.
  • Explain why monocultures are more susceptible to pest problems.
  • Summarize the problems associated with pesticide use, including development of genetic resistance; creation of imbalances in the ecosystem; persistence, bioaccumulation, and biological magnification; and mobility in the environment.
  • Describe the pesticide treadmill and explain how resistance management may help with this problem.
  • Discuss pesticide risks to human health, including short-term effects and long-term effects.
  • Explain endocrine disruption.
  • Describe alternative ways to control pests, including cultivation methods, biological controls, pheromones and hormones, reproductive controls, genetic controls, quarantine, integrated pest management, and food irradiation.
  • Define persistent organic pollutant and describe the purpose of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
  • Distinguish between municipal solid waste and nonmunicipal solid waste.
  • Describe the features of modern sanitary landfills and explain some of the problems associated with them.
  • Describe the features of a mass burn incinerator and explain some of the problems associated with incinerators.
  • Summarize how source reduction, reuse, and recycling help reduce the volume of solid waste.
  • Define integrated waste management.
  • Define hazardous waste and briefly characterize representative hazardous wastes (dioxins, PCBs, and radioactive wastes).
  • Explain how green chemistry is related to source reduction.
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